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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Schematic outline showing the potential signaling pathways of waterpipe smoking exposure in the embryo and breast cancer progression. We believe that waterpipe smoking can affect the normal development of the embryo as well as breast cancer progression through Erk1/Erk2 and PI3k/Akt pathways which can deregulate several genes related to cell migration and invasion and consequently embryonic survival and cancer progression

Figure 1: Schematic outline showing the potential signaling pathways of waterpipe smoking exposure in the embryo and breast cancer progression. We believe that waterpipe smoking can affect the normal development of the embryo as well as breast cancer progression through Erk1/Erk2 and PI3k/Akt pathways which can deregulate several genes related to cell migration and invasion and consequently embryonic survival and cancer progression