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   2017| September-October  | Volume 6 | Issue 5  
    Online since November 30, 2017

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Mechanisms and biomarkers to detect chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity
Habib Haybar, Mohammad Taha Jalali, Kazem Zibara, Zeinab Deris Zayeri
September-October 2017, 6(5):207-213
DOI:10.4103/ccij.ccij_47_17  
A cardiotoxicity is a considerable event for cardiologists and oncologists during and after chemotherapy. The use of certain chemotherapy agents such as trastuzumab, programmed death-1 inhibitors, and Doxorubicin increased in cancer therapy; however, these agents associate with an increase in mortality and cardiotoxicity. Detecting cardiotoxicity is based on patient's medical history and physical examination since there is no exact biomarker or polymorphism for its early diagnosis. Therefore, we still need potential biomarkers for cardiotoxicity risk. Treatment of several cancers is manageable while preventing cardiotoxicity, as chemotherapy side effect, is essential since it might be a greater risk than the malignancy if not detected at early stages. Early detection of cardiotoxicity, during and after chemotherapy, is crucial to decrease permanent and devastating cardiac damages. Recently, troponin but also atrial-type and brain-type natriuretic peptides were reported as good diagnostic biomarkers for cardiotoxicity. Micro-RNAs and inflammatory mediators are candidates as prognostic biomarkers. Genetic biomarkers such as C282Y allele of hemochromatosis gene makes the patients more susceptible to cardiotoxicity; therefore, genome studies are valuable in predicting chemotherapy results. In this review, we present the mechanisms of developing chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and biomarkers for its detection in patients. Echocardiographic techniques are very strong techniques which could be used along with biomarkers for more reliable and quicker diagnosis.
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CASE REPORTS
Limbal complex choristoma–A rare unexpected lesion diagnosed by histopathology
Subrata Pal, Kingshuk Bose, Srabani Chakrabarti, Anup Kr Mondal
September-October 2017, 6(5):227-229
DOI:10.4103/ccij.ccij_53_17  
Complex choristoma contains a variety of tissues derived from more than one germ layer. Complex ocular choristoma is a very rare lesion. Very few cases have been reported so far. It may or may not cause visual abnormality depending on its location. Sometimes, it is associated with other congenital abnormalities. Here, we report a case of complex limbal choristoma which was diagnosed at adult age in a 58-year-old male patient and confirmed by histopathological examination.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Quantitative analysis and comparison of mast cells in breast carcinomas and axillary lymph nodes
Sritanu Jana, Sulekha Ghosh, Arindam De, Subrata Pal, Sanjay Sengupta, Tapan Ghosh
September-October 2017, 6(5):214-218
DOI:10.4103/ccij.ccij_52_17  
Introduction: The incidence of breast cancer is increasing throughout the world and it has become the major health problem. Many risk factors and prognostic factors of breast cancer have been identified. Inflammatory cells in the tumor stroma have gained increasing interest on recent time. Aims and Objectives: The study was undertaken to identify the prognostic impact of presence of stromal mast cells in breast carcinomas. Materials and Methods: It was an institution-based descriptive study with cross-sectional design. Total 44specimens of postoperative breast tissue and dissected axillary lymph nodes of carcinoma breast were taken as sample. After processing of tissue, the slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and subsequently with toluidine blue stain. Counting of mast cells was done in toluidine blue stain. Results and Analysis: Among 44cases, the mean age of patients was 45.32years and infiltrating ductal carcinoma-no special type was the most common type. According to histological grading, GradeIII was most common. The mean mast cell count in breast lump was 5.76/high-power field(HPF). The mean mast cell count in axillary lymph node was 11.20/HPF among 27cases. It was observed that when the tumor grade increases, the number of must cell decreased per HPF. Conclusion: This study indicated that the number of mast cells in breast cancer was inversely correlated with the grade of this tumor.
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CASE REPORTS
Cell block preparation–An adjunct to fine-needle aspiration cytology–unveiled the diagnosis
K Geethamala, Meena N Jadhav, Rekha M Haravi, Shreekant Kittur
September-October 2017, 6(5):219-222
DOI:10.4103/ccij.ccij_55_17  
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functioning endometrium outside the uterus. Scar endometriosis is a rare entity reported in 0.03%–1.7% of women following cesarean section scars. The diagnosis is frequently made only after excision of the diseased tissue. We present a case of 28-year-old female who presented with mass on anterior abdominal wall adjacent to a previous surgical scar. Fine-needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) of the mass revealed sheets of epithelial cells, spindle-shaped cells, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages suggestive of endometriosis. Additional cell block preparation done with the aspirate material confirmed the diagnosis. The present case highlights the use of cell block preparation together with FNAC which consecutively helps in preoperative diagnosis of scar endometriosis and facilitates the best management strategy.
  - 1,688 23
Ocular surface squamous neoplasms: A case series
Banyameen Mohamad Iqbal, Kunjal Karia, Iqra Mushtaq
September-October 2017, 6(5):223-226
DOI:10.4103/ccij.ccij_58_17  
Neoplastic lesions of conjunctival and corneal squamous epithelium known as ocular surface epithelial dysplasia range from mild dysplasia, carcinoma insitu to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia(OSSN) has a predilection for mitotically active corneoscleral limbus(95%). The incidence of OSSN varies between 0.02 and 3.5/100,000 populations. The most frequent to be affected by these neoplasms are the elderly males of fifth to sixth decade. We highlight case series of five patients presenting with ocular surface neoplasms of which two were immunocompromised. The diagnosis of the few cases was made on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. These cases are discussed to emphasize on the increased incidence of these ocular surface neoplasms.
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Paratesticular liposarcoma in an adolescent male: Case report of a rare tumor
Mou Das, Tamanna Parvin, Anis Bandyopadhyay, Uttara Chatterjee
September-October 2017, 6(5):230-232
DOI:10.4103/ccij.ccij_45_17  
Paratesticular liposarcomas (PLs), first reported in 1952, are rare tumors that comprise approximately 3%–7% of all paratesticular sarcomas. PL of unknown etiology typically affects adults aged 50–60 years and rarely occurs in the young. Here, we report one case of an 18-year-old male patient presenting with a mobile, firm, painless, and nontender testicular mass measuring about 7 cm in greatest dimension. Testicular tumor markers were negative. On cytological (fine-needle aspiration cytology) examination, features were suggestive of a malignant mesenchymal tumor. Subsequently, he underwent radical orchiectomy along with high ligation of the spermatic cord. A wide local scrotal excision was also done, which was followed by histopathological examination. A diagnosis of PL was made which was confirmed by immunohistochemical examination with vimentin positive and negative for desmin and myogenin. Since there is no definite consensus of opinion as regards to the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient received none. He remained recurrence free after an 18-month regular follow-up.
  - 1,055 15
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