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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 43-49

Genetics and Epigenetics of Glioblastoma: Therapeutic Challenges


1 Department of Neurosurgery, Golestan Hospital, Clinical Research Development Unit, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Biology, Laboratory of Stem Cells, Faculty of Sciences, DSST, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
3 Department of Research Center of Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Department of Genetic, Golestan Hospital, Clinical Research Development Unit, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zeinab Deris Zayeri
Golestan Hospital, Clinical Research Development Unit, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ccij.ccij_82_17

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Glioblastoma is a brain tumor that develops due to both genetic and epigenetic risk factors. Crosstalk between the genetic and the epigenetic offers new possibilities for therapy. Abnormal methylation of methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter region and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations are prognostic and therapeutic response markers in glioblastoma. Mutations in genes such as epidermal growth factor receptor, TP53, and P16 have been reported in glioblastoma; therefore, they might associate with survival and worth to be used in estimating survival risks. MKI67 expression associates with posttreatment such as adjuvant radiotherapy results evaluation. On the other hand, monosomies, such as deletions of chromosome 10, especially q23 and q25–26, are good markers for estimating the progression and aggressiveness of glioblastoma. The profile of MGMT methylation is modified in glioblastoma and hence can be a good target for epigenetic drugs. Other useful strategies in the treatment of gliomas include several micro-RNAs (MiRs) which are alerted in glioblastoma and which affect the regulation of mRNAs are associated with gene expression profiles of the disease. Epigenetic drugs, such as azacitidine and decitabine, which belong to the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) inhibitor 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), can suppress DNMT1 and stimulate tumor suppressor genes expression. MGMT methylation status and IDH mutational status are two valuable prognosis and therapeutic response markers in glioblastoma. Regulation of glioblastoma through epigenetic drugs, such as not only inhibitors of EZH2, histone deacetylase, and DNMT, but also MiRs, are promising approaches in glioblastoma treatment. Improves in understanding cancer genetic and epigenetic disruptions is the key point in solving the puzzle of glioblastoma treatment.


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